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By J. C. Coggins, Ph.D., LL.D. 

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Copyright, 1911, by 
J. C. Coggins, Ph. D., L L. D. 



I. The Idea of God a Logical Necessity. ... 3 

II. Space 13 

III. Time 17 

IV. Matter, or the Philosophy of the Material 

World 21 

V. Life and Its Origin 27 

VI. The Origin of Varieties of Life 35 

VII. Multiplicative Powers 43 

VIII. The Soul a Builder 47 

IX. Peculiar Soul Features 51 

X. The Mental Heritage 55 

XI. Why Twins Are Alike 59 

XII. Soul Energy 65 

XIII. Communicative Powers 69 

XIV. Telepathic Communication 73 

XV. Psychological Grafting 81 

XVI. The Philosophy of the Food Supply 91 

XVII. The Philosophy of Death 95 

XVIII. Subjects Related to Pure Philosophy. . . 101 


'The Heavens declare tht glory of God; 

And the firmament showeth His handiwork. 

Day unto day uttereth speech, 

And night unto night showeth knowledge. 

There is no speech nor language, 

Where their voice is not heard. 

Their line is gone out through all the earth, 

And their words to the end of the world." 

— Ps. 19 : 1-4. 



In dealing with the Philosophy of life it becomes 
necessary for us to use the human consciousness as the 
starting point and unit of measure; for it is not satis- 
factory to start with any assumption. 

We must start out with an acknowledged fact as the 
basis of our reasoning. It is an acknowledged fact 
that the human mind is conscious. 

In this consciousness the mind knows itself to be in 
existence, and it knows itself to be an individual, sepa- 
rate and distinct from other objects. 

It knows itself as a unit of its kind, that its con- 
sciousness is not divisible or distributive ; i.e., it is con- 
scious of being in one place at a given time. 

It is conscious of its continuity of existence as 
proven by the power of memory. The mind is con- 
scious of space as an essential part of its environment. 
It is conscious of the presence of other beings in space 
distinguishable from itself, and distinguishable from 
space. It is also conscious of time and its existence in 

With these A, B, C's of consciousness reason is 
developed and can stand on her feet. As the personal 



consciousness is not able to give any account of its 
origin, it is evident that it is not responsible for its 
existence. Were it self -creative, it could give an ac- 
count of its origin; it could remember and tell just 
how and by what means it brought itself into being. . 
But while it knows that it is a real self, and that the 
real thinking self did not make itself, it begins to try 
to solve the problem of its newly discovered existence 
in a world of being. 

Experience and observation soon teach important 
lessons and furnish valuable data for investigation as 
to the origin of our consciousness. It is discovered 
that all living terrestrial beings have the power to mul- 
tiply themselves in offspring, each type and form of 
life reproducing its kind; and this is so uniform that 
the idea of law is developed. 

And in tracing these individual streams to the foun- 
tain-head of their conscious existence the origin of this 
law of Animal and Mental life is discovered in the 
first pairs, or the original ancestors of all families. 
These first pairs represent the adams and eves of 


These are the spring-heads of various life-streams. 
Observation has taught us how life flows this side of 
the springs, but the important question with us now 


springs show enough similarity and relationship to 
indicate one common origin and are rendered peculiar 
by means of the various orifices through which they 
are conducted into being. The careful analysis of the 
springs shows that while they are separate and dis- 


tinct in themselves, they all come from the same source. 
By a reference to our experience and observation on 
the question of life-production we know that it takes 
life to produce life; that a peculiar mental condition is 
back of every peculiar physical organization; and that 
the reason for family resemblance is in mental pecul- 
iarities. That in reality every individual is in a large 
degree the mental product of its ancestors, the putting 
into living form their ideas. The man ruled by a 
criminal passion will carry out his idea in his offspring. 
And men and women of high morals and strict virtues 
give their ideas to the world in the lives of noble sons 
and daughters. 

It seems to be a law of life that the individuals of 
every class are but the result of the way their an- 
cestors thought, in fact, they are their thought, the 
extension and multiplication of their mental life. Then 
if it be true that the life, habits and traits of character 
depend so essentially upon the thought and mental 
condition of the ancestors, the same must be true of 
our first ancestors. They too must have been the 
product of thinking! And their lives are confined to 
this plane of thought, i.e., the idea of the ancestor is 
carried out in the life of the offspring. Furthermore, 
as there are distinguishing features in offspring only 
so far as there is freedom or variability in the minds 
of the ancestors, so the original Ancestor of all forms 
of life had the power of freedom of thought. He was 
not confined to thinking about and thus producing just 
one kind of life. He was not bound by the thoughts 


of ancestors. Hence he could think in any direction 
of his choice. 

His thoughts on life terminated in life-forms 
corresponding exactly to His idea or thought. And 
his idea was in the thing thought out as the very soul 
of its existence. So the original idea gave the 
nature to the thing ; from which it could never depart 
or translate itself into other being at will. 

Thus at the early morning, of each conscious life, 
and all life is conscious, each and every created being 
awoke to a full consciousness of its individuality, as a 
result of former thought concentration. And, 
moving as in a circle each type of life goes on forever 
without the power of change or over-lapping or blend- 
ing; for each circle of life is a unit, an individual, a 
world all its own, in its newly made conscious thought, 
and from this little world of soul there is no departure, 
for it is impossible for it to leave itself. So, back of 
all spring-heads of life there is mental activity, a con- 
scious personality whose thoughts become vitalized and 
individualized and rendered conscious. 

This original fountain of life, from which an infinite 
number of streams issue and run their courses on 
through everlasting plains, must necessarily be a bound- 
less and unfathomable Ocean of thought filling all 
space with its presence, and having the power to start 
up various enterprises in space, according to its deter- 
mination and will. Moreover, as this is the fountain 
of life, the Fountain must, from the very nature of 
the case, be perennial, or eternal in duration. For it 
is an axiomatic truth that nothing has the power to 


create itself. The idea would be just as utterly absurd 
for god to create himself as it would for the first 
man to create himself or for a world to give birth to 
its own existence. Such would be an unthinkable 

If god, or the original of all life, did not make Him- 
self, He was either made by some other being more 
powerful than himself or was Always in existence. 
But were he created he would not be the Original 
Fountain or Source of life, but the result or thought of 
another, and his maker would be greater. Moreover, 
if it should be possible for such a series of divine be- 
ings to be related from the human standpoint of An- 
cestor and offspring, it would be necessary, even from 
analogy, for an Adam Divinity to stand at the head of 
the line of Divine Ancestors; and we would encounter 
the same trouble in finding the forces and influences 
producing this first Being as we did in the first place. 

For the voice of the law would insist that nothing 
has power to make itself. Everything must either be 
made by a Maker, or be Eternal. Then, god was 
neither made by another being nor self-created. He 
did not come wading up out of the shoreless Ocean of 
Nothingness. He was Always as he is now and will 
always be the same. He is an organizer, for He built 
organic bodies. He is a thinking being, for He has 
made beings that think. He is self-conscious, for He 
has produced self-conscious beings of various kinds. 
He can see, for he has produced both the light and the 
eye. He can hear, for He is the Author of both the 
voice and the machinery of the ear to catch the sound; 


He loves the true and the good; for He made the soul 
with affections and gave to each heart a conscience as 
a monitor. 

He not only has power to think, but also the power 
to express His thoughts in words, for He is the 
Author of sound. He has freedom of thought and 
action; for He conferred this power upon His 

He has power to clothe His divine personality 
with a light of superlative brilliancy and glory, for He 
has thus clothed every new-born world in space. His 
knowledge is so vast and profound that in the strict 
sense He is above Reason, Memory and Hope. For, 
He knows intuitively, without taking the steps of logic; 
and thus knowing, he does not need to recollect. 
And instead of Hoping, He has what His Soul desires. 
So, with His knowledge and power, he is above rea- 
son, memory and hope. 

He is the only logical satisfaction for the equation 
of the visible universe. For the Creator cannot know 
less than the creature, He must represent in Himself 
the sum total of all physical and mental forces that 
have eminated from His divine personality. He is the 
great X in the problem of life. Then in Him is the 
equal, at least, of the world's sweetest music, in Him is 
the equal of the world's poems, in Him is the equal of 
the world's art ! Yea, in Him is found all the inventive 
skill of the world's master minds!. 

When we hear a song we know there is a singer; 
when we see a poem we know there is a poet, and 
when we see the brilliant flash of lightning we know it 


was produced by an invisible current of electricity. 
Hence any mind capable of distinguishing cause from 
effect is not only capable of believing in God, but also 
of recognizing the fact that the very idea of God is a 
logical necessity in order to the solution of the great 
problems of life. 

'If I ascend up to Heaven thou art there: 

If I make my bed in Sheol behold, thou art there. 

If I take the wings of the morning, 

And dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; 

Even there shall thy hand lead me, 

And thy right hand shall hold me." 

— Ps. 139:8-10. 




The idea of Space is necessarily connected with 
every object, for every object requires space in which 
to exist. The idea of God necessitates the idea of 
space; and the very thought of God is conditioned on 
the idea of space; for it is impossible to think of God 
as being separate and apart from and unconnected 
with space. Hence, space is as eternal as God, un- 
created and infinite. This affords room for the work- 
ing-out of the ideas of the Infinite mind of the Al- 
mighty, and harmonizes with the conception of an 
Omnipresent God. 


'And God said unto Moses, 

I am that I am- and He said, 

Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, 

I am hath sent me unto you." 

— Exodus 3 : 14. 




Every intelligent mind has its now, if not also its 
thens and will bes, or an idea of time. And this Time 
is also connected with space; for, the object or being 
that recognizes time is in space and recognizes its 
presence in Space. So, time, Space and God are 
closely connected ; for there has not been a time when 
there was no God; and there doubtless is no part of 
space that has not been pervaded by His presence. 

There is no way of stopping time in the broad sense 
other than stopping the machinery that marks it off in 
periods. Space can be filled just as easily as time can 
be annihilated. Time on a particular planet ceases with 
the going-out of the planet's existence, so there is no 
longer time on it; but there is time where it was when 
it occupied space. And all this related, limited and 
periodical time is but an essential part or parts of the 
immeasurable, and infinite duration called Eternity. 
Solomon said, "There is a Time to every thing under 
the sun," and he could as truly have said there is also 
a time to every thing above the sun, for every thing is 
embraced in time; and every thing has its time, it 
matters not in what part of space it may be located; 
time is there! And instead of time departing it re- 



mains. Time can be measured, but it cannot pass 
away. Time cannot take wings and fly as pictured in 
childish mythology. It is not a substance or an entity 
that can come and go at will. It is the now of the 
soul ; the now of all life ; the now of the vast universe 
and the now of God. Time, therefore, is stationary 
and is a necessary condition of consciousness. And 
our passing about in it is mistaken for the passing of 
time. It frequently happens that the apparent is mis- 
taken for the real. The mountains, hills and plains 
will appear to fly past a train of cars as we look out at 
the car windows ; but these remain stationary and we 
pass on ; the sun, moon and stars seem to circumnavi- 
gate the earth in an Ocean of light, but this impression 
is only due to the motion of the earth. 

"For in Him were all things created, in the Heavens 
and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible, 
whether thrones or dominions, or principalities or pow- 
ers; All things have been created through Him and 
unto Him; And He is before all things, and in Him all 
things consist." — Col. I :i6-i8. 




Matter, like time and space, seems to be universal 
in its distribution. When we scan the heavens with 
the aid of the most powerful telescopes, we behold 
worlds and systems of worlds in every direction; and 
we are led to believe that the matter of which these 
worlds were made was of elements that were universal 
in distribution. For notwithstanding the inconceivably 
great distances by which they are separated, they all 
reveal in the analysis of the spectroscope one common 
origin, a kinship that binds together in one family all 
the starry hosts of heaven. Moreover, the smaller 
bodies known as "falling stars," which are small 
meteoric stones that are constantly falling to the earth 
and probably to all other large bodies, are akin to the 
planetary systems and are controlled by the same laws 
that govern the larger bodies. These are constantly 
being formed singly, and in "showers," in the atmos- 
phere surrounding the earth. The material of which 
these stones are formed is the same, doubtless, of which 
all the planets are formed ; and since they are formed 
in space of invisible substances floating in the air, the 
same is likely true of all bodies. If this be true, then 
all worlds and systems of worlds, together with all 



material bodies came from an invisible condition that 
might be called the primary state. This is further evi- 
denced from the fact that these bodies can be thrown 
back into a gaseous state by subjection to in- 
tense heat. But the particles are in themselves inde- 
structable. Then, if the fore-going premises are cor- 
rect, the theory of the Nebular hypothesis of world- 
origins is incorrect. For, instead of the planets 
originating at one place and being thrown off from an 
original, swiftly whirling mass of matter in a semi- 
fluidic condition, they came of material that was uni- 
versal in extent and distribution and that could be 
utilized at any point in space for the building up of a 

The fact that the heavenly bodies are all related is 
no more a demonstration that they all came from the 
same original mass, than that a dozen goslings came 
from the same egg; and it is just about as absurd that 
all the Solar system came from the sun as that all of 
a flock of Geese came from one egg. One is as rea- 
sonable as would be the other theory. 

God does not have to let a contract to some trans- 
portation company to have matter carried and dumped 
off at some place where He decides to make a world. 
The matter is every-where in an invisible or gaseous 
condition, and God has to exercise His energy in shap- 
ing the matter to a definite end or purpose. 

The thing thus shaped and brought into being that 
distinguishes it from all other beings is said to be 
created, made, or brought into existence. The idea 
that something came from nothing, or was made from 


nothing, is "in the same boat" with the theory that a 
thing could make itself. The very thought itself is an 

If nothing is the mother of something then nothing 
is equal to something and something may itself become 
nothing ; and in reality there is no such thing as a real 
thing. For, if universal being came from universal 
nothingness then nothing is equal to all being and all 
being is simply nothing; and the idea of nothing is a 
self-contradiction, for something and nothing would 
become equal. 

So we are forced by a logical examination of mate- 
rial substances to conclude that all space is not only 
pervaded with the thought of the Almighty but that co- 
extensive with this thought is the existence of matter 
in its primary condition. For, if God were perfectly 
free and apart from matter in His own personality, and 
there was no matter in the universe except as the most 
minute particles or atoms were created by Him ; then, 
we would encounter another absurdity, the unreason- 
ableness of a world coming from a being who lacked 
in Himself the elements of which it was composed, 
together with the idea that there could be no elements 
outside or apart from those that He had created. For, 
that again would be equivalent to something coming 
from nothing. 

Therefore, the only reasonable hypothesis is the uni- 
versality and eternity of matter co-extensive with and 
permeated by the mind of the Infinite; or, that matter 
is contained fundamentally in the mind. For, 
there is no matter beyond the reach of mind; and it 


may be that there is no mind that does not in a sense 
contain elements of matter. So that matter is either 
eternal in itself, or is in the mind. And the latter is 
the more reasonable theory ; for then the Infinite mind 
would contain in itself the simple, essential and funda- 
mental elements of which the material universe is 

Then, every material body has its spiritual and in- 
visible side from which it has been shaped and built 
into visibility and objective reality; and every material 
body has been shaped and brought into visibility by an 
invisible force and power called mind. For, matter 
without mind and mental supervision has no power to 
shape or form itself. An intelligent workman is neces- 
sarily back of every intelligently constructed body. 

Now in this mental shaping, placing and construct- 
ing of matter, constant thought is operative to the 
extent of the development of laws known as the laws 
of nature ; and the so-called laws of nature are in real- 
ity the laws of mind. For, nature is superintended 
by laws she knows nothing about. So, the greatest 
powers and forces are those that are invisible but are 
really mental. 

In fact it seems that all law is traceable to mind as 
its ultimate source. 

'But ask now the beasts and they shall teach thee; 
And the birds of the heavens, and they shall tell thee' 
Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee; 
And the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee. 
Who knozveth not by all these, 
That the hand of Jehovah hath wrought this? 
In whose hand is the Soul of every living thing 
And the Spirit of all mankind." 

— Job 12 : 7-10. 




We must draw the distinction here between the 
created and the uncreated life. For, as it is a fact that 
all life springs forth out of mind, there has never been 
a time when there was no life; for in God life has an 
Eternal spring. And from this source, came all types 
and forms of life with which we have become ac- 

As it is necessary to make the human consciousness 
the basis of our reasoning on being, and the earth the 
measuring reed for other worlds ; it is also necessary 
to make the human life the unit of measurement on the 
subject of life. In pursuing this course we are not 
blindly roaming over a pathless Sahara, but are fol- 
lowing the "way of least resistence," every step of 
which is taken on solid rock, the rock of our own ex- 
perience and observation on the question of life. 

We have found that life is not self-creative or self- 
originating. Further, that the popular theory of evo- 
lution is a farce. For it is purely idiotic that something 
can be born of nothing. That would be a far greater, 
or more unreasonable miracle than any recorded in 
the Bible. And it is a fact that some who have so 
strenuously objected to the idea of the miraculous in 
the Bible, adopt theories in regard to the origin of 



life that require the working of far greater miracles 
than any represented in the Scriptures. 

The theory of "Spontaneous generation" was 
thrashed out in a discussion followed by experiments, 
at the Academies of Science in London and Paris, and 
to the utter defeat of the Spontanists, demonstrating 
the impossibility of an evolution without first a 


If there had been any truth in the theory of spon- 
taneous generation, of the bursting forth from some 
unaccounted-for life-cell into all the forms of life now 
on this planet, it is almost inconceivable that during the 
thousands of years of human experience and observa- 
tion in the very midst of a teeming ocean of life, that 
man would not be able to witness or come in contact 
somewhere with the fact of evolution. But this funda- 
mental fact, if a fact at all, has been able to evade dis- 
covery and recognition for a period of at least six 
thousand years. And, "missing links," or rather yawn- 
ing, unfathomable chasms lie between the great moun- 
tain tops of Created being. These vacancies are fixed 
gulfs that no man can pass over. So, the supposed 
stream of immigration coming from the inorganic to 
the organic, from the vegetable to the animal, and 
from the animal to the human world has not yet been 
discovered outside of a fertile imagination. 

So, we say that all life is in, or originates in, mind. 
For every organism must have an organizer, and the 
organizer is an intelligent being. There is design, pur- 
pose and plan back of every living thing. We behold 
design in the elements of the earth beneath our feet, 


in the air that we breathe, in the gases that we exhale, 
in the clouds that float as ships in the heavens, in the 
breezes that blow, in the restless ocean, in the light that 
falls from heavenly bodies, and in the relation of 
worlds to each other. 

Design; yes, indeed we see it everywhere and in 
everything! It is in the wing of an insect, the bill of 
a bird, the eye of an eagle, the claws of the cat, the 
fins of the fish, and the hand of man. Then if there 
is a purpose or design in everything and in every type 
and form of life, there must be a Designer. Then as 
we can see such perfect design, and adaptation of each 
living organism to the place it is to fill, and to the con- 
trolling idea of the indwelling spirit of each living 
thing; it, as the lawyer would say, is super facie evi- 
dence that there is a living, thinking, purposing and 
planning mind as the origin of life; and any other 
theory is contrary to the laws of thought and reason. 

Then as there is a purpose back of every life as the 
very foundation of its existence, we may reasonably 
look for the purpose to become revealed in the life and 
peculiar adaptation to its environment; and each life 
will be, in a large degree, bound in the circle that was 
marked out in the original purpose. While it moves in 
this sphere as a slave, yet, it is its life, its very ex- 
istence. And if it is possible for the life to experience 
the feeling of joy or the pleasant sensations, they will 
be experienced only in the degree that the life con- 
forms to the original purpose. 

It is true that each form of life represents a pur- 
pose just as peculiar and distinct as the life is distinct 


from other forms of life. Take, as an example, the 
Honey Bee. As it collects the honey from the flower 
it also makes it possible for the plant to reproduce 
itself; and the long bill of the Humming Bird is not 
only for the purpose of getting food, but for depositing 
the pollen in certain plants that other-wise could not be 
reached, and hence could not be reproduced but for the 
long bill ; the beautiful Red Clover is due to the faith- 
fulness of the Bumble Bee to his purpose. So there is 
not only a "time" but also a purpose to everything 
under the sun. When a thing serves its purpose it is 
serving in a normal way its Creator, whether it be con- 
scious of serving or not. 

As there is a "great gulf" between our consciousness 
and the consciousness of other forms of life, we can- 
not say whether they are conscious of serving. We 
are sure that they are as conscious as we are of some 
things. We know more than the horse thinks we do, 
and doubtless the horse knows more than we think he 
knows; for there is no way of getting into the con- 
sciousness of each other. So we are not able to say 
with certainity whether the faithful horse, or dog 
that serves as best he can in his place, has any idea of 
a future life. They do seem to have some idea of 
death ; and they have their codes of ethics, and the idea 
of right by discovery and possession. The dog will 
fight to maintain possession of his master's coat that 
has been left in his care; and small birds will drive 
away larger ones from their nests ; and the hornet will 
retreat when away from his home, but when you call 
and knock at his door there is trouble. 


The affectionate nature is more clearly seen in some 
animals than in others. We knew two little dogs to 
refuse food and drink, and to die of broken-hearted- 
ness upon their master's new-made grave. We knew a 
chicken cock to take the place of a sitting hen that was 
killed by a mink, and hatch out the young chickens, 
performing the service of the mother-bird. This seems 
to have been not a matter of "instinct," but of reason 
and choice, unless we allow that instinct is a form 
of reasoning; and we claim that we are taking the 
course of least resistance by adopting the theory that 
all animals reason and exercise mental powers. The 
dog that has chased rabbits to a certain hole several 
times, adopts the plan of running to the hole as fast as 
possible and there awaits the arrival of the rabbit. 
That is reasoning based on former experience. It is 
understood that earth-worms represent about as low a 
form of life as any in the scale of being; and it seems 
that they reason. They associate the idea of a thun- 
der-storm with food and a damp earth. Hence, every 
time it thunders heavily they come to the surface, and 
fishermen in need of bait, when onto the theory of the 
worm, only have to pound the earth a little while and 
the worms crawl out and are taken for fish bait. 

The old theory that animals could not reason was 
doubtless adopted as an attempt to place man as far 
as possible from the animal to weaken the influence of 
Mr. Darwin's fanciful theory of evolution. It is not 
only a fact that Mr. Darwin was mistaken on some 
points ; but it is also true of the extremists on the other 


Now, if it should be proven that all animals have 
minds, and, as the mind is the soul, or spirit, why- 
should we file an objection? 

Of course everything that has a simple idea has a 
mind, for the mind only, can have ideas ; and the mind 
is the soul, or spirit. These are simply different words, 
"mind, soul, spirit," to represent the same original 
idea; for these words were frequently used in Greek 
literature to represent the same thing. 

Prof. Hopkins thought that animals did not have 
the power to become angels or devils; while man 
could become either angel or Devil. But experience 
has taught us that there are among animals some that 
could well be classed as members of the "Dam family." 
For there are some animals that undoubtedly are often 
conscious of wrong-doing. 

A sneaking dog that slips up behind a person and 
bites will run if nothing is done or said. It was the 
habit of a mule that could not be caught when loose or 
in the pasture, upon getting frightened and throwing a 
child, to stand perfectly quiet till the one thrown was 
replaced or some one came to the rescue; but at any 
other time the mule was wild and could not be caught 
'till hemmed in a corner. 

"And God made the beasts of the earth after their 
kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything 
that creepeth upon the ground after its kind." — Gen. 




The idea of variety seems to be one of the prevailing 
laws of universal being. 

We look up into the starry heavens at night and be- 
hold a great variety of stars, suns, moons, satellites and 
among them all there are no two just alike ; of all the 
leaves of Autumn there are no two alike; and of all 
the wealth of blooming flowers in the lap of Spring no 
two are found alike! So, of all the forms of life and 
of all the individuals of each family, there are no two 
exactly alike! And in the proportion as the circle of 
individuals is enlarged the possibilities for varieties are 
increased. The varieties that develop the different 
races of people are controlled by this universal law; 
and with varieties in all the forms of created life of 
which we have any account, why should we not expect 
varieties just as clearly and distinctly marked in the 
human family? Why should we be astonished at the 
appearance of a black man in the human family, any 
more than at the appearance of a black sheep, a black 
dog, or a black horse? 

The writers on Ethnology divide the human family 
into at least three primary races ; the White, the Brown 
and the Black. These can be clearly traced through 
the ancient civilizations of the east to prehistoric times, 



when the nations were more closely related than they 
are now. And the unmistakable kinship in the lan- 
guages, together with the universal tradition of the 
Noachian Ark and Flood clearly point to a time when 
the nations of the earth were a unit, or were but one 
nation of people. The very best work that one can 
read on ancient Ethnology is the Book of Genesis. 
This record has been endorsed by an author of won- 
derful accuracy of statement; saying that, "God hath 
made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on 
all the face of the earth" (Paul, Acts 17: 26). 

It is claimed by Dr. Dawson, of Mackgill University, 
that varieties are as much the result of a miracle as 
the thing itself; that is, it required a miracle to produce 
each form of life and the same power that gave being 
to a particular form of life also gave the varieties their 
peculiar forms. That each variety was endowed with 
the power to perpetuate its peculiar kind. The same 
writer further contends, that, instead of any given 
species having the power to ascend to higher altitudes 
in the scale of being, the natural tendency seems to 
be downward. This is certainly true of animal life, 
and is recognized by all stock raisers. The hogs when 
left alone will soon degenerate into "Razor Backs," the 
cattle into lean horny rangers; and it is so with 
families of people who persist in inter-marrying their 
kin. There will appear physical deformities and men- 
tal imperfections as the result. For this very reason, 
says Mr. Kidd in his splendid work on "Social Evo- 
lution," "France is degenerating at a rapid rate," and 
Germany has a tendency in the same direction. Spain, 


Italy, and Greece have gone to seed and the very seed 
is bad. One has only to compare the people of these 
countries with their noble ancestors of a few centuries 
ago to see how long it would take the old obsolete 
theory of evolution to elevate a race or nation to the 
plane of Christian manhood and womanhood. It can 
not be done by "Natural selection." It can only come, 
says Mr. Kidd, "As the result of a great moral force 
that is found in the Christian Religion." 

In his work entitled "History of European Morals," 
Mr. Leakey says, "That within the narrow limits and 
scanty population of the Greek States should have 
arisen men, who, in philosophy, in epic, dramatic and 
lyric poetry, in written and spoken eloquence, states- 
manship, sculpture, in painting and probably also in, 
music should have attained almost or altogether the 
highest limits of human perfection, is one of the anom- 
olies of history." Sir Henry Maine says, "In an in- 
tellectual sense nothing moves in the western world 
that is not Greek in its origin." 

William E. Gladstone said in the "Review of Re- 
views" of April, 1892 : 

"I sometimes say that I do not see that progress in 
the development that we should see. No doubt develop- 
ment is a slow process, but I do not see it at all; I do 
not think we are stronger, but weaker, than the men 
of the middle ages; I would take it as low down as 
the men of the sixteenth century. The men of the six- 
teenth century were strong men, stronger in brain 
power than our men." 

Mr. Galton, in a work on "Hereditary Genius," 


says, "The ablest race of whom history bears record is 
unquestionably the ancient Greeks. We have no men 
to put by the side of Socrates and Phidias, and the mil- 
lions of Europe, breeding as they have for the subse- 
quent two thousand years, have never produced their 
equals ; the average ability of the Athenian race is, on 
the lowest possible estimate, very nearly two grades 
higher than our own." 

Moreover, it is asserted by writers on Ethnology 
that there are now people who live in trees, and eat 
raw flesh, and are so low in mental ability that they 
are not able to count more than five (Haberlandt). 

So, Prof. Dawson seems to be correct in his theory 
that there is rather a downward than an upward ten- 
dency. And Mr. Kidd is correct also in his theory 
that the great force that lifts the people who shape and 
control our advanced civilization is the Christian re- 
ligion. As each type, or form of life has its circle in 
which it moves, it is a fact that each circle has its 
center and circumference. And all life builds, or de- 
velops from the center. This is true of the human 
body ; it begins with the heart and builds outward. The 
center and circumference are logical relations as well 
as mathematical terms. There is no way of moving 
the center to the circumference and vice versa. It is 
true the radii may be either lengthened or shortened; 
but when shortened to the point that the circumference 
touches the center, then the circle is destroyed and 
away go both the center and circumference out of 
existence. And so it is with life. Each form of life 
has a circumference or limit beyond which it cannot 


pass. I will always be myself, and will never be capa- 
ble of changing myself into the self of another. I 
recognize myself in my own consciousness as being the 
same conscious person that I was twenty-five years 
ago; and I will doubtless recognize myself a billion 
years hence as the same person that I recognize myself 
to be now. Hence, the kind of being I will be in the 
future largely depends upon the kind of being I am 
now. And this is the philosophy of the Bible, "He 
that is filthy, let him be filthy still and he that is holy, 
let him be holy still" (Rev. 22: 11). 

"And God said unto them, be fruitful and multiply, 
and replenish the earth, and subdue it." — Gen. i : 28. 




The power to multiply or propagate the species is 
restricted or limited to the individuals of a class, i.e., 
a horse cannot be the descendant of a fowl, fish or 
insect, but must come from its kind of life. And it 
seems to be the law that two elements or natures are 
necessary to the reproduction of the individuals of a 
given species, viz. : The masculine and the feminine. 

CIPIENT state. And while it becomes necessary for 
the embryonic creature to occupy temporary quarters, 
it is intelligent enough to know the necessity of erect- 
ing a house for itself; and it losses no time in begin- 
ning this important work. When this task is finished 
the young soul moves out to take its place and act its 
part as an individual in the world of being. It is not 
only a law that animals of different species cannot be 
amalgamated or crossed, but it is also true of botanical 

It is impossible to graft one tree or flower into an- 
other of a different nature and family. So, instead of 
the old "Development theory" being true and scientific, 
it is without any foundation whatever. For the lines 
of distinction are just as clear, and the limitations are 
as inflexible and irremovable in all life, as if the vari- 



ous types and families had been separated by stone 
wall fences, or had been reared in cages of their 
own. There have been no over-lappings or cross- 
ings of dissimilar types. In a sense, the offspring is 
doomed to forever "Travel in the path their fathers 
trod." There is absolutely no such thing as a member 
of one family passing over and becoming a member of 
a different family. There is no greater hoax than the 
theory that men came from some lower animal; that 
a band of monkeys got on a rampage and broke over 
the lines of monkey dom and were formed into a new 
order of beings. Mr. Haberlandt says, there is a tribe 
of savages in Australia that lays claim to monkey 
ancestry. How true Mr. Haberlandt's report is we do 
not know. But if it is true it is an exception to the 
general rule that the representatives of all nations be- 
lieve God or some supernatural original beings were 
the ancestors of the human family. 

"For as he thinketh within himself so is he." — Prov. 




One of the most intensely interesting features in the 
realm of philosophy is the architectural power of the 
soul, the power to weave material into a fabric for its 
covering. It is just as true that there can be no body 
without the soul as there can be no web without a 
weaver. God is no more engaged now in making men 
in a physical sense than He is in making any other 
form of life. 

The fleshly and physical part of our being is the direct 
result of soul-building. The soul is intelligent from 
the first moment of its existence; and its work begins 
on the very day of its conception. It rears its bony 
frame and weather-boards with flesh, covers with skin 
and paints and decorates to suit its fancy. Its first 
state of existence is bodyless, and hence fleshless, 
bloodless and boneless; for, it has none of these when 
it begins to work ; and it does not build blindly, but 
has a model in itself for the house that is to be erected. 


"And behold there talked with Him two men, who 
were Moses and Elijah; who appeared in glory, and 
spake of His decease which He was about to accom- 
plish at Jerusalem." — Luke 9: 30-31. 




Each soul has its peculiarities that are as distinct, 
as those that mark the body. The soul of an insect 
builds a body corresponding exactly to its peculiar soul 
and adjusts the body to the soul and its nature and 
needs; as the skillful tailor cuts the cloth to suit the 
shape of the man, so the spirit or soul builds to suit 
itself. This is the only reasonable solution of the old 
problem of how the same food is transformed into the 
flesh of fowls, animals and man at the same time and 
place. There is absolutely no way of getting around 
the theory that there is an intelligent personality resid- 
ing in each separate organism that has control of the 


The very fact that an engrossed and preoccupied 
mind undergoing a severe trial will invariably precipi- 
tate indigestion proves that the mind digests the food 
and that it cannot carry on the work of digestion and 
worry over business matters at the same time! The 
cure for indigestion is to enjoy the meals. 

Then each soul is a builder that rears its own peculiar 
house or body in which it is to reside for a time. Hence 
the body is the physical expression of the soul, a kind 
of sign-board, an advertisement of the spiritual being 
that lives within. 


'It is the spirit that quickeneth." — John 6 : 63. 




Mental tendencies are a part of the psychological in- 
heritance of every child ; our thought capacity and the 
trend of thought is an "offspring." Nothing is more 
clearly demonstrated upon a careful examination of 
the pedigrees of the inmates of penitentiaries and jails, 
as well as the world's greatest thinkers, than the fact 
that the entire mental individuality is bequeathed by the 
parents. Plato, the great Grecian philosopher, was a de- 
scendant of the illustrious Law-giver, Solon; Epicurus, 
the originator of the Epicurean philosophy, was the 
son of a noted school teacher in Samos; Aristotle's 
father, Nicomachus, was an eminent physician who 
numbered the Macedonian king among his patients and 
could trace his ancestry to Mackoron, the son of Aescu- 
lapius. Frances Bacon's father, Sir Nicholas, was a 
famous statesman and lawyer, Lord keeper of the 
Great Seal in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. His 
mother also was descended from a scholarly family and 
was a woman of refinement and classical culture; John 
Lock's father was an eminent lawyer; and Herbert 
Spencer's father was a school teacher, a man of un- 
usually broad culture and original ideas ; Abraham Lin- 
coln's real father, Abraham Enlow, of Dillsboro, N. C., 
was an unusually brainy man whose descendants are 



Supreme Court Judges, Congressmen and Legislators 
and builders of public sentiment. Then the millions of 
personalities that are and have been here on this earth 
evolved from one original pair, Adam and Eve, the 
first representatives of the race. These original an- 
cestors, instead of being classed with the lower animals, 
were doubtless the noblest in form, the most handsome 
in feature and the most capable in thought production 
of all the race. We have been furnished a glimpse of 
their thought force in the Biblical statement that, 
"Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowls of the 
air, and to every beast of the field." This, indeed, was. 
a suitable couple to be placed at the head of a royal 
family ; they, in all probability had a very large family 
of children, reproductions of themselves, of whom 
early Jewish tradition says there were fifty-five, thirty- 
three sons and twenty-two daughters, the youngest of 
whom was Repha, the wife of Cain. The descendants 
of this first family during the first thousand years of 
its history, were men of gigantic stature and excep- 
tionally great longevity, who for length of days have 
not been approximated by the population of any subse- 
quent time. 

'Thy teeth are like a flock of ewes that are newly shorn, 
Which are come up from the washing, 
Where-of every one hath twins." 

— Song of Solomon 4: 2-3. 




The only reason that twins are so much alike is due 
to the fact that they come into existence at the same 
time under the same circumstances. And as the mind 
is never in the same mode at two given times, the souls 
that come as offsprings at different times are never 
just the same ! 

Children differ from each other just as much in dis- 
position and habits as in physical appearance ; and it is 
not the body that determines the kind of disposition 
but it lies in the mind ! So, in reality, it is the mind or 
soul that is the real person. The soul is peculiar and 
the cause of physical pecularities ; and this lays the 
foundation for soul recognition after the dissolution 
of the body. For if the soul has peculiarities that 
develop the physical features, the soul will still be a 
peculiar individual when separated from the physical. 
The soul first existed without any body whatever, be- 
fore the body was formed ; and it possessed intelli- 
gence, or it could not have formed the body. So, the 
souls of all living things, having power to exist prior 
to any physical organization, will in all probability 
exist after their material or fleshly houses are torn 
away. Then, the soul is not dependent on its body 
per se for its existence. But the reverse is true. So 



the philosophical probabilities are certainly in favor 
of not only a future life but also a future recognition. 
And there are as many kinds of souls as there are 
living things, for nothing can live without a soul. 
Then it appears that there are as many soul- forms as 
there are living organisms. Each soul is peculiar, and 
as the result of its peculiar features it builds a peculiar 
organism as its physical form and expression. And 
while they differ in degrees of intelligence; or at least 
in the ability to express in an intelligible manner the 
power to reason, yet they all have some powers in com- 
mon. They all have to start out in the race of their 
existence from the same condition exactly. All begin 


bodies to occupy. Then the power to think is in all 
soul-life before the body is formed. Therefore the 
soul of anything does really exist before it has a body, 
and the young soul is the builder of its body. So, it is 
a fact that souls can and do exist before and without 
the physical body. Hence, it is true that the soul can 
think and reason and plan before it has a brain and 
nervous system ; for, these it must build. Then if these 
postulates be true, and we know they are, it is an in- 
disputable fact that the soul of anything is able to 
think, plan, design and reason, independent of 
bodily organization ! At the conclusion of a lecture 
at Hartsell College, Alabama, the writer was asked by 
a physician, if it was not true that mind is the result 
of organization. The reply was, that there could 
be no organization without first a competent organizer ; 


and the organizer must be intelligent ! Mind comes 
from mind, not matter. Beef steak, Graham Bread and 
molasses are not translated into mind and 
thought ! But into bone, muscle, blood and heat, in 
which the soul is living. Food is only material for the 

Now, as it is an established fact in science that the 
soul, in the first stage of its existence, is without any- 
bodily organization whatever, and in this stage and 
state of its being it is able to design and build a body, 
it seems but a legitimate conclusion that these same 
souls that possess these attributes and powers before 
they have bodies will also possess the same funda- 
mental power after they leave the body! And as 
they respectively possess soul features that are peculiar, 
and are the cause of peculiar bodily features, it is also 
but reasonable to conclude that after the dissolution of 
the body the soul will not only continue its existence, 
but as it is a peculiar soul and has been peculiar from 
its conception, it will remain so forever! Hence 
the foundation is laid deep and strong in philosophy 
and science for a future life, and the power to know as 
we are known. For if the souls are peculiar we can 
recognize each other as well in the future as we do 
here. Now, we claim that this is not far-fetched rea- 
soning ; it is not grabbing at a straw, neither is it wild 
speculation; but the legitimate and logical sequence of 
sane philosophy, the deduction of the most careful and 
up-to-date research and investigation in the domain of 

"Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their 

And in their death they were not divided: 
They were swifter than eagles, 
They were stronger than lions." 

II Sam. i : 23. 



It is also a fact that the soul has power over the 
body. Eliminate the soul and the body is a lifeless 
mass of muscles and bones. Sallust, a celebrated 
Roman writer expressed a fundamental truth when he 
said, "Dux et emperator corporis animum est" the 
leader and commander of the body is the mind. It not 
only developes a body and keeps the body in repair, but 
furnishes its energy. Without the soul energy the 
eagle would fall helpless to the ground, the athlete 
would become a dummy, and the race horse a common 
plug. A small man, because of great soul energy, may 
be superior in physical endurance to a man of much 
larger bone and muscle who is lacking in this element. 
And this not only effects the strength of the body, 
but also the longevity, for all things being equal the 
man of great soul energy will be the longest lived. 
This is also true of fowls and animals. 


"And the whole earth was of one language and of 
one speech. And it came to pass as they journeyed 
east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; 
and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, 
come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. 
And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for 
mortar. And they said come, let us build a city, and a 
tower whose top may reach unto Heaven; and let us 
make us a name; lest zve be scattered abroad upon the 
face of the whole earth. And Jehovah came down to 
see the city and the tower, which the children of men 
builded, and Jehovah said, Behold they are one people, 
and they have all one language; and this is what they 
begin to do, and now nothing will be withholden from 
them, which they purpose to do. Come, let us go down, 
and there confound their language, that they may not 
understand one another's speech." — Gen. 11:1-7. 




Every soul in its normal condition has the power 
to communicate its ideas to the members of its kind 
and class. The old theory that there can be no thought 
without language is not true. There can be no lan- 
guage without thought, but there can be thought 
without language. 

Language is not the cause but the result of thought, 
a means of expressing thought; and it may be in 
natural signs and symbols or acquired forms known 
as artificial language. 

Man is the only being, as far as we know, that has 
built up an artificial language. While it is true there 
are animals that are said to be educated, and it is true 
they have acquired knowledge in their training, of the 
meaning of a number of artificial symbols, yet it can- 
not be claimed that they have the power to develop or 
acquire an artificial method of expressing their ideas. 
When left to themselves they do not practice their 
acquired tricks nor teach them to their offspring. 

The whole animal kingdom seems to be able to ex- 
press ideas by means of natural signs. 

The bird will call and its mate will answer; they 
can give the alarm at the approach of an enemy; and 
can tell when the danger is over. This is their lan- 



guage, for it is the expression of their ideas in their 
way among themselves; the method is universal with 
them. Their knowledge is intuitive, or is gained in a 
telepathic manner and it is doubtless true that the law 
of telepathy applies with stronger force in the animal 
world than elsewhere. We surely have some very 
strong indications that heredity, more than any other 
reason, causes the "young ideas to shoot" as they do. 
The baby wolf, though taken when a day old, will 
develop all the traits of the wild pack, despite all ef- 
forts at domestication ; and the young partridges when 
hatched by a chicken hen or incubator will start run- 
ning and hiding as soon as they leave the shell. They 
positively refuse to be domesticated; and this idea 
comes out of the shell with them. If there are not 
"Innate ideas," there must be a kind of soul-creed for 
each life. So, all things considered, the idea of hered- 
ity is the most plausible view to adopt in regard to 
the habits and languages of the animal creation. 

"And Jehovah opened the mouth of the ass, and she 
said unto Balaam. What have I done unto thee, that 
thou hast smitten me thus three times? And Balaam 
said unto the ass because thou hast mocked me: I 
would there were a sword in my hand, for now I had 
killed thee. And the ass said unto Balaam, am not I 
thine ass upon which thou hast ridden all thy life-long 
unto this day? And have I ever acted thus before? 
And he said, nay. Then Jehovah opened the eyes of 
Balaam and he saw the angel of Jehovah, with his 
sword drawn in his hand, and he bowed his head and 
fell on his face." — Num. 22 : 28-31. 




The power of telepathic communication has been 
one of the hard propositions with which the student 
of mental science has had to deal ; and various efforts 
have been made to explain away the telepathic feature 
of communication by attributing this phenomena to co- 
incidental happenings. But the testimony is over- 
whelming in favor of telepathic influences. We once 
heard three young ladies begin humming the same 
song at the same instant, the mental "Wires were 
crossed," and all thought and said the same thing at 
the same time. This is just as true as that the tele- 
phone lines get crossed and a number of people are 
called up at the same time. This theory is much more 
credible now, since the discovery and successful opera- 
tion of "Wireless Telegraphy." For, telepathy is just 
as reasonable as wireless telegraphy. This theory will 
account for a great many otherwise strange things that 
could not be reasonably accounted for in any other 
way. It throws an unfading light on the humbuggery 
of Spiritualism. All the "messages" that are not far- 
cical are more likely to be telepathic communications 
caught up by the mind of the "medium," from some 
mind of a living relative or acquaintance. But the 
"medium" may be perfectly sincere in saying that the 



message is from the dead, and yet be mistaken. How- 
ever, we are not justified in attributing things to the 
dead that are more likely to be done by the living. 
While it may be true that the so-called dead are as con- 
scious and as actively engaged as they were while in 
the flesh, we are not furnished with any substantial 
evidence of returning spirits. 

It has frequently occurred that a person in dire need 
or distress communicates the fact, mentally, to a rela- 
tive or intimate friend at a distance ; and in some cases 
immediate relief results from this kind of communica- 
tion. There are instances of this kind occurring in all 
parts of the country and to say it is simply accidental 
is to take the most unreasonable view of the matter; 
just as well say that "Wireless telegraphy" is purely 
accidental. Prof. W. O. Krohn, Ph.D. (Yale), gives 
the following incident which is really a mental com- 
munication : 

"The following case recently came to the knowledge 
of the writer, and is thoroughly vouched for, but has 
never been published as yet. The parties concerned in 
the narrative are all well known to the writer. Mr. B., 
a man forty-five years of age, utterly devoid of senti- 
ment, very matter of fact, cool-headed and business, is 
a large lumber dealer in Ohio. One morning he was 
walking through a piece of timber which he had pur- 
chased a short time before, and was engaged in direct- 
ing the lumbermen as to where trees should be cut 
and how long the logs should be, where the oak, 
hickory and walnut, respectively, should be piled, etc. 
While in the very midst of the work of directing his 


men he heard a voice like that of his daughter calling, 
'Father! Come, help me!' He was observed to grow 
very pale by his foreman and others standing near, but 
no one could divine the cause, as he himself said noth- 
ing. He dropped his work, though it was only in the 
middle of the forenoon, drove to his home in the neigh- 
boring town and lay down from shere exhaustion. 
His wife, noticing his strange appearance, so very un- 
usual, as he never in his life had been ill, sent immedi- 
ately for the family physician ; to the physician Mr. B. 
confidently related, for the first time, what had oc- 
curred in the woods ; a few moments later a messenger 
boy brought a telegram which stated that his daughter, 
who had been visiting at Columbus for two weeks and 
who was expected home the following Saturday even- 
ing, was smitten with typhus fever, and requested that 
he come at once to her bed-side. He did so, finding 
her delirious, and that she had been calling for her 
father ever since 10 o'clock that morning, the very 


when in the timber no less than forty miles away!" 
Pages 203-204, "Practical Lessons in Psychology." 
Moreover, the idea of telepathic influence also accounts 
in a reasonable way for mesmeric influences, Sug- 
gestive Therapeutics or Mental Healing, Christian 
Science and other allied systems of thought. In many 
instances those possessing these powers of mind in an 
unusual degree are really ignorant of the real source 
of the power, some attributing the strange influence to 
"Spirits," others, to "Prayer," and some to a "Special 
dispensation of Providence." While the power, in 


reality, perchance, resides in each and every soul as a 
part of its nature! Indeed, it is more highly de- 
veloped in some individuals than in others, but all have 
the power; and it may be that this power of the soul, 
concentrated in a mother's earnest prayers for the con- 
version of a wayward son or daughter, exercises such 
a powerful telepathic influence as to find its object and 
so stir the conscience as to start up new resolutions for 
life in the boy or girl's soul. The same is doubtless 
true of the power of a speaker over an audience. 
Orators like Demosthenes, Cicero, Clay, Webster, 
Bryan and Roosevelt, could stir great audiences till 
thunders of applause would break in ocean waves, or, 
in spell-bound silence the multitude would stand on 
tip-toe holding to the backs of chairs and benches while 
the speaker carried them on, in the sweet rhythm of 
poetic fancy, to glittering heights amid the dazzling 
scenes of his own fertile imagination. 

It is a fact known to all public speakers that it is 
much easier to talk to an audience that thinks with 
the speaker than to talk to one that is not capable of 
thinking, or that thinks to the contrary. When people 
think in harmony with the speaker it seems to fertilize 
his thought ! There is no harder job than to try to 
preach or lecture to an audience of stumps and trees. 

Since the mind has. the power to project itself in 
space and come in touch with other minds and catch 
messages from them, it is a plausible solution of the 
method of temptation by an Evil Spirit, and also how 
God, by His spirit caused the "Holy men of old" to 
utter predictions. If one mind can mentally suggest 


ideas to another, the Evil Spirit can certainly do the 
same, and so can the Divine Spirit suggest the good. 
This principle also furnishes the reason for so many 
young people's falling into sin when they go to the 
large cities. There they are caught in a great mental 
net where so many wires are alive with sinful ideas. 
On returning to a pure country home or clean country 
village, how refreshing the mental atmosphere as well 
as the sweet heavenly breezes ! All who have had ex- 
perience in city and country life know how true this is ! 
One should bear in mind that it was an evil day when 
"Lot pitched his tent toward Sodom." For nothing 
can take the place of good and wholesome influences 
for the young in the formation of character. 

When the author was a boy, he went one bright 
spring morning with a mountaineer to the Eagle Rock, 
where the eagles built their nests and raised their 
young, in a great cliff of the over-hanging crags of 
Cedar Cliff Mountain. The top of the mountain, in the 
form of a small plateau, pushed out to the verge of 
this frightfully over-hanging precipice, and upon reach- 
ing the top he said to the guide, "Nute, I am going to 
the edge of the cliff and look down! I want to see 
how far it is down to the tops of the tall poplar trees 
below." His face turned pale as he said, "Don't go 
there !" But being inexperienced he persisted and 
went. But to his horror! In a single moment he 
found himself as helpless as an infant, with no power 
to retrace his steps. He was on the verge looking 
down from the dizzy heights into the gates of death 
and all the powers within and all the forces without 


seemed to conspire in pushing him down! Voices 
seemed to say, "Go down ! Go on down ! Go down ! !" 
He cried for help and a strong hand pulled him away 
from death ! ! ! 

And so it seems that away up toward the mountain 
tops of opportunity in social and commercial life there 
are dangerous precipices to be carefully avoided. 

It is believed by psychologists that the constant pub- 
lication in the daily newspapers of the various kinds 
of crime, works an injury to the formation of char- 
acter; that these mental pictures cannot be eradicated. 

"And they also if they continue not in unbelief, shall 
be grafted in: for God is able to graft them in again." 
— Rom. ii : 23. 




The following is the opinion of a man of broad ex- 
perience in the Theatrical world : 

"Mental pictures that arouse the animal instinct have 
an effect on character that even time cannot erase. It 
may be argued by the average thinker, or non-thinker, 
that inasmuch as virtue is nearly always triumphant 
on the stage, it may be an excellent lesson to the young 
mind to show how vice is punished. And yet the police 
authorities will tell you that crime is always most 
rampant, most flourishing, when the newspapers are 
full of accounts of crime and its punishment; this is 
because the idea of crime, once taken into the human 
mind, becomes part of the consciousness and generates 
and breeds after its kind in the mind which is prepared 
for, or has tendency to crime. Lombroso and other 
alienists have written extensively on this subject. In 
other words, the idea of crimes, the mental picture, 
whether it be taken into the consciousness from the 
stage or created in the imagination by its appearance 
in a newspaper, acts as a mental suggestion, giving 
rise to criminal impulse, and has an auto-hypnotic ef- 
fect on the individual who witnesses the crime or reads 
about it. Of course, not on all individuals alike, for 
the mental soil must be prepared through lack of in- 



intelligence or spirituality for the seed of vice, as the 
physical body must be prepared, through lack of vital- 
ity or inherent weakness, to receive the seed of disease 
and propagate it. Therefore, it seems to me that the 
quality of the seed, the ideas sown by a play, should be 
matters of far greater import than they are, and I fully 
believe that when these subtle facts are brought to 
light and are more generally understood that vice on 
the stage will either be completely shorn of its gild ; ng, 
its glittering and its attractiveness, or it will be elimi- 
nated altogether." 

Protesting against indecency in the theater, a writer 
in the "Literary Digest" of February, 1909, says: 

"The increasing indecency of the stage is arousing 
protests from many sides. Rabbi Wise, in a recent 
address in Clinton Hall, New York, indicted the thea- 
ters as they are to-day. T don't care if every manager 
is a Jew — they are all heathens,' he is reported to have 
said. A writer who addresses the 'New York Times' 
thinks it wrong, however, to condemn the stage folk 
for 'the recent upheaval of immorality in our play- 
houses.' The true offender is the public, he asserts. 
To prove this he thinks, 'One has only to notice care- 
fully what theaters are doing "capacity" business, and 
the ones that are playing to a nightly loss.' " 

What Rabbi Wise said, as reported by the "New 
York Tribune," is in part the following: 

"The stage ought to be an uplifting agency. It is 
far from it. It makes for degradation, for absolute 
moral rottenness. I wish to God our skirts were clean, 
and that there were fewer Jews to blame. The mana- 


gers seem to vie with one another in producing the 
most degrading things, and they insult us by implying 
that we want such stuff, and that you and I don't want 
to see a clean play. 

"I indict the theaters as they are to-day. I don't 
care if every manager is a Jew — they are all heathens. 
I indict those who are pandering to vice, whether Jew 
or Christian. It is the debasement of the nation. And 
it will remain so until you say, We will not go near 
your theaters. Is not our moral life insulted by what 
we see on the stage to-day ? . . . 

"There is one thing to be done. We've got to in- 
crease our moral assets. There is too much of penal 
law and too little of moral law. I want the moral 
principle applied. We honor not honor but success. 
We have but little honor for the man who is not rich. 
We've got to change our moral judgment of men. You 
can't prevent a man from buying an automobile or 
dukelet for his daughter, but we can limit our respect 
for him, even for a man who has libraries to give away. 
We can limit the purchasing power of money." 

Archbishop Farley is reported to have declared that, 
"The stage is worse to-day than it was in the days of 
paganism," and the "New York Evening Post," "look- 
ing at the theater as it is in this city," thinks that 
"there is much ground for this sweeping assertion." 
It goes on in this strain : 

"Not only is Salome, against which there was such 
strong protests two years ago, being produced regu- 
larly, but there are at least four plays in hitherto 
reputable theaters so indecent or dealing with such 


disgusting themes that they would not have been tol- 
erated a few years ago. For this situation, the avarice 
of the managers, Christian and Jewish, is not wholly 
to be taxed. The laxity of the press is not without its 
share of the blame. How to remedy the situation is a 
problem to which the city's spiritual advisers may well 
devote themselves. We have, fortunately, progressed 
far from the time when every minister felt that every 
theater was the pathway to destruction. Prejudice of 
this kind has passed with the recognition of the great 
educational possibilities of the stage. But, if the 
present rage for nudity and the portrayal of lives of 
immorality continues, we shall soon reach a pass where 
it will be folly to assert that we have any standards at 
all, or to require any of the theater." 

So, there seems to be a law of Psychological Graft- 
ing, that pervades and governs the development of 
every life. 

These influences may be received consciously and 
unconsciously, but fortunately as each individual has 
the power to choose certain articles of food, discrimi- 
nating against others, for the good of the physical man, 
so the mind also has the power to discriminate against 
and rule out objectionable and offensive matter that 
feeds the soul, for the soul feeds on facts and fancy 
as does the body on food and drink. 

However, the Will can file an objection to inviting 
vicious thoughts and permitting them to den in the 
mind as truly as one can refuse to take a certain kind 
of food into the stomach. But, while it is a fact that 
mental "wires" come in touch constantly with each 


other, it seems also to be true that some minds have 
their wires so perfectly "insulated" against the low and 
vicious influences that but little effect is felt ; and some 
minds are stronger to resist influences than others. 
Some leave the gates and doors open, and pigs go into 
the yard and thieves into the house ; hence there is no 
way of estimating the importance of carefully guard- 
ing the avenues that lead to the citadel of the soul. 
Watchmen should be stationed on guard at eye, and 
ear gates to keep the ways to the source of character. 

The printing and circulating of obscene pictures and 
literature of a sensual and vicious tendency have, with- 
out question, exercised a far greater influence for evil 
than all other forces combined. Even our large daily 
papers are not free from participation in such detest- 
able work; but the news scavengers are aware that 
"hot stuff," as they call it, is in great demand by a 
large constituency. Hence a special effort on the part 
of publishers of papers to excel in reporting suicides, 
murders, robberies and divorce cases, anything of an 
excitable and inflammatory character, and doubtless 
without knowing the evil tendency from a psychological 
viewpoint. We grant that evil tendencies are fre- 
quently counter-balanced by good, wholesome liter- 
ature together with the moral and religious influences 
of the home and church. But where would the world 
go were it not for these sanctifying and ennobling in- 

When it becomes known that there is actually and 
truly a grafting of character into our psychic natures 
from the books we read and the pictures we see, parents 


will become more cautious as to the kind of mental 
diet they set before their children. 

There is no telling how many murders and robberies 
the one book, "The Life of Jesse James," is responsi- 
ble for as the direct result of psychological grafting. 
A bunch of boys of good families in a North Caro- 
lina town got hold of this book and read it, and imme- 
diately way-layed an old man, murdered and robbed 
him; imagining themselves to be the outlaws of whom 
they had read. The Detective Stories are just about 
as bad. It should be a violation of the Postal Laws 
to put such reading matter before the public. Why 
build jails and penitentiaries in which to domicile the 
criminals of the country and at the same time permit 
and encourage the existence and free operation of the 
direct cause of criminality? Parents are the first to 
make impressions, or to perform the office of psychic- 
grafting, and if the work is begun in time and prop- 
erly done the same fruit will be grown that is found 
on the parent tree. Then the Sunday School Teacher, 
as she stands before the class of eager young minds 
faithfully exhalting Christian manhood and woman- 
hood, serves the noble office of placing the young lives 
in the moulds for a happy destiny. The schools and 
colleges are moulds on a larger scale for the shaping and 
directing of life energies. Then comes the influence of 
the minister of the gospel, with his heart-searching and 
soul-stirring appeals for a revocation of all affiliation 
with sin in any form, and the putting on of the new 
life in Christ Jesus our Lord and Master ! This is the 
highest type, the Christ-like life, that can be grafted 


onto our human nature. And this divine life when 
grafted will grow and transform the old life into 
a new one; for this is the law of the graft, that it 
can change the nature of the old life. So, upon read- 
ing and absorbing the life of Christ, one will, accord- 
ing to the law of mental life, come into close psychic 
relationship with Jesus, and there will be a tendency 
toward Him in character formation ; and the more 
careful and constant the study of this perfect life, the 
more will such an one be conformed to this standard of 
living. Hence the appropriateness of the expressions, 
"Let this mind be in you that was also in Christ Jesus ;" 
"Let Christ be formed in you, the hope of glory," and 
"Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ." 

The truth is, the entire system of the Christian re- 
ligion is the result of psychological grafting, turning 
in upon our wild natures the new life from God, in 
order to reproduce in us the elements of fruit found 
in the graft, the life of Christ. This is really funda- 
mental. Now, this is rather the application of a prin- 
ciple than a discovery ; for it is one thing to discover a 
law and another to apply a known principle. This 
fundamental principle of character-forming is the 
"Novum Organum" of regeneration. It lies at the 
foundation of genuine, thorough conversion to Christ. 
Just as the boys previously referred to were really con- 
verted to Jesse James upon taking his life into their 
minds, so people can be just as really and fundamen- 
tally converted or transformed in character by associa- 
tion with and assimilation of the Christ life. There is 
some pure philosophy in the declaration of Jesus, "If 


I be lifted up I will draw all men unto me." The 
author was once in a home where there was but one 
picture on the wall, a picture of a ship at sea. There 
was an only son and when a small boy he frequently 
looked at this picture. When he grew to manhood, 
despite the pleadings of his father and mother he 
became a sailor, and finally captain of a vessel. His 
aged father believed the picture to have influenced 
his son to become a sailor. So, when Christ is "lifted 
up" before the people they will become influenced by 
this wonderful picture of life; and the more it is seen 
the more lasting and powerful will be the impression, 
until the whole being will feel under restraint and con- 
straint. There will be a restraining influence against 
wrong-doing, and a constraining influence to do what 
is right and proper. This will come not as a miracle 
but as a natural consequence. The following in His 
steps will simply be the inevitable result of the influence 
of the psychic spell that comes from seeing Him 
Whom to know is eternal life. Hence the paramount 
importance of placing this life-transforming picture 
in the homes of the people. Let the subjects of con- 
versation be more about Christ, instead of reading so 
much of the nerve-destroying newspaper scandals. 
Read to the children about Christ, so that He will 
become the life-shaping power of the home. 

'Give us this day our daily bread." — Matt 6: n. 



Food is employed by the soul for the following pur- 
poses, viz. : 

(i) For building material for the house that the 
new soul proposes to occupy. Food for this purpose 
is manufactured into bone, flesh and other essential 
parts of the physical body ; and the soul makes its de- 
sire felt in strong sensations known as hunger. This 
is felt in the first stages of the soul's building in the 
degrees that the soul feels a need of any special kind 
of food. The food is received and digested and fur- 
nished offspring in the blood of the maternal ancestors 
of mamalia, but the embryo finds its food supply stored 
in the shell for all bird and reptile life, or, perchance, 
the soul contains within itself these elements of which 
bone, flesh and feathers are formed. 

(2) Repair work is also found to be necessary. 
After the body has been built it must be in constant 
repair. For the body contains the elements of death 
as well as the elements of life. There is constant wear 
and tear and waste going on ; and the decayed and 
effete matter must be carried out of the body and new 
material must take its place. For this reason the body 
is supplied with double canals ; one system, the arterial, 
for carrying the material to where it is called for in 



the body, and another, the venal, for carrying off the 
waste matter. 

(3) Heating the body is another, but rather inci- 
dental, office served by the food supply. So, food is 
only used for building, repairing and heating the body, 
thus keeping the body in normal condition for the soul. 
The soul or mind per se, is not influenced by the food 

The food should be judged by its effects on the 
body, and nothing should be taken into the body that 
acts as a poison, or that shows a depleting tendency 
on any of the physical organs. As well try to repair 
a magnificent temple by putting into it old decayed 
logs as to try to keep the splendid human body in first 
class condition by constantly taking into it elements 
that defile and destroy the tissue of the body. 

"Remember also thy Creator in the days of thy 
youth, before the evil days come and the years draw 
nigh, when thou shalt say I have no pleasure in them; 
before the sun, and the light, and the moon, and the 
stars, are darkened, and the clouds return after the 
rain; in the day when the keepers in the house shall 
tremble, and the strong men shall bow themselves, and 
the grinders cease because they are few, and those that 
look out of the zvindows shall be darkened, and the 
doors shall be shut in the street; when the sound of the 
grinding is low, and one shall rise up at the voice of a 
bird, and all the daughters of music shall be brought 
low; yea they shall be afraid of that which is high, and 
terrors shall be in the way; and the almond tree shall 
blosson, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and 
desires shall fail; because man goeth to his everlasting 
home, and the mourners go about the streets; before 
the silver cord is loosed, or the golden bozvl is broken, 
or the pitcher is broken at the fountain, or the wheel 
broken at the cistern, and the dust returneth to the 
earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who 
gave it." — Ecc. 12 : 1-8. 




There is a certain condition that for convenience, or 
for a lack of a more suitable term, is called death. 
This, however, has never carried with it, fundamen- 
tally, the idea of annihilation; nor of passing into a 
state of unconsciousness. The fundamental idea is 
separation. This appears to be so clear from a his- 
torical study of the word that it is practically beyond 
question. In the old Hebrew literature the word car- 
ried with it fhis idea. The first penalty attached to 
the violation of law was death. "In the day thou eat- 
est thereof thou shalt surely die ;" or, literally from the 
Hebrew, "Dying thou shalt die." But they did not 
cease to exist as conscious beings, nor did they die, as 
we would say a "physical death," on the day of trans- 
gression. Many have called in question the reality of 
their death on the very day of disobedience; and the 
various speculative theories in regard to this first 
death in the human family are largely due to a miscon- 
ception of the fundamental idea of death, and much 
mischief has been done by manufacturers, who turn 
out new definitions to old words to supply a modern 

Now, what did actually take place on the day of 
transgression ? They were actually separated from the 



Garden or paradise, in which they had been residing 
since their creation ; and this death of separation from 
the Garden led to another death — the separation of soul 
and body after several hundred years of toil in laying 
the foundation for the world's progress. So, our first 
ancestors experienced two deaths ! And if death be- 
gan on the day of separation, it terminated in the sepa- 
ration of soul and body; but the idea of two deaths is 
more in harmony with the general tenor of scripture 
teaching and is certainly in harmony with the historical 
meaning of the term. 

It is argued by the Apostle Paul, that death passed 
upon all men on account of Adam's transgression. And 
it is fundamentally true for this reason that, as life 
' was conditioned on their remaining in the presence of 
God and the Tree of Life, and as Adam and Eve, on 
account of sin, were banished from the very fountain 


the world outside of the Garden. So, if Adam died on 
this day, in being sepatated from the garden, it also 
meant death in the same way for his posterity ! And 
if this separation led to the dissolution of the body, it 
would also work out the same results in the offspring 
as a perfectly natural consequence! For, when 
man took up his residence outside the Garden, in 
which the life principle was accessible in the fruit of a 
tree, he became subject to the same law that governs 
and controls all animal creation; hence, physical death 
was inevitable without divine interposition. 

Then the world was dead in the same sense in which 


Adam died, for the world was also separated from the 
"Tree of Life." Hence the world remained dead in 
Adam; for the world has not been permitted to re- 
turn in the flesh to this first paradise and eat of the 
life-giving fruit. 

The same Apostle represents Christ as the source of 
a new life and also refers to the manner of coming 
into it (Rom. 6: 1-5). The candidates for a new life 
first die to sin ; i.e., they are separated from sin ; and 
the rites of a burial are attended to, symbolizing the 
fact that they are dead, or, actually in every motive 
and purpose of the heart separated from a life of 


Death does not terminate the existence but simply 
changes the condition and position of the individual; 
for as it has been proven in a former chapter that the 
soul is possessed of intelligent faculties before it has a 
bodily organism, it does not depend upon the bodily 
structure for its life. But since the body does depend 
fundamentally for its existence and life upon the soul, 
there is necessarily a collapse when the soul moves out 
of the body. 

Moreover, the idea of decomposition is not applica- 
ble to the soul or the intellectual faculties ; for nothing 
can be decomposed that has not formerly been com- 
posed of different elements. The body being composed 
of about sixteen different kinds of elements, is sus- 
ceptible of decomposition, or can be thrown back into 
the units of which it was built up. But the mind is 
not, as far as we know, made up of different ingredi- 
ents, but is, as the chemist would say, a simple element ; 


and this is true whether it be material or immate- 

from the very nature of the mind it cannot be de- 
stroyed in the popular sense of decomposition. So 
there is no such thing as death for the soul in the 
sense of its passing out of conscious existence. 

"This is the end of the matter; all hath been heard'- 
Fear God and keep His commandments ; for this is the 
whole duty of man. For God will bring every work 
into judgment, with every hidden thing, whether it be 
good or whether it be evil." — Ecc. 12 : 13-14. 





Assuming, as a recognized fact, the existence of 
God as the Author of our being, and the source of our 
intelligence, it is in perfect harmony with the idea of 
God and highest reason that there should be manifes- 
tations and communications to the human family of a 
supernatural character. 

For, as it is granted, God is a being of such power 
and character as to be able to manifest and reveal Him- 
self to His intelligent creatures, and the character ot 
the human heart is such that it desires and needs such 
communication; and this feeling of need is an univer- 
sal experience, moral imperfection being felt wher- 
ever there is a human heart, it is perfectly reasonable 
that such communication would be forth-coming, that 
would be both in harmony with human reason and 
the power of God. 

For it is useless to say God it not deeply interested 
in the affairs and well-being of this world. It is His 
child! And pure reason demands a close relationship 
between parent and offspring. And were it not in and 
a part-of His plans to reveal Himself to the world, it 



is reasonable that He would in answer to an uni- 
versal desire. Shall the child call and the father 
hearing, neglect or refuse to answer? Would a father 
see a child dying of thirst and hunger and not turn 
his hand to bring relief? What kind of being would 
such a father be? Our hearts get hungry and thirsty 
for visions and voices from another world. Shall they 
not be seen and heard? A thousand times yes! And 
as God is not a human being it is perfectly reasonable 
that His manifestations would be of a supernatural 
character to us. 

Moreover, since He is a Divine personality, His 
manifestations and communications would also be 
classed as divine and would bear the stamp of divinity. 
This would be necessarily and fundamentally true ; for, 
were the theophanies not so clearly and distinctly 
stamped as to distinguish them from mere human ebu- 
litions and poetic fancy, how would the world know a 
divine manifestation from that which is purely human? 
The truth is, were a heavenly manifestation or com- 
munication not DISTINCTLY MARKED it WOUld fail to 
become a divine manifestation or communication at all. 
For where would be the communication if there should 
be no way of distinguishing it from that which is purely 
human? It would fail to serve its purpose. If God 
had always appeared and spoken simply as a man in 
every particular there would be no possible way of 
drawing a line between what he said and what some 
man said ; Hence, there would be no divine manifesta- 
tion or revelation. So there could be no divine com- 
munication or manifestation after this fashion. That 


kind of manifestation would not manifest God; and 
that kind of revelation would fail to reveal God ! 
Therefore a divine manifestation or communication 
must, from the very nature of the case, bear the stamp 
of divinity ! 

Therefore, instead of being surprised to find strange 
and wonderful manifestations of God recorded in the 
Bible, we should expect to find them! At least, after 
we have been apprised of the purpose and character of 
this collection of books; for any other plan would be 


Then, since man desires a manifestation and revela- 
tion of his Creator, and since his Creator has the 
power to satisfy this universal desire, it is in perfect 
accord with highest human reason that God would 
meet the desire in the manifestations and revelations 
as are ascribed to Him ! And pure reason insists that 
any divine manifestation or revelation from heaven 
must necessarily be so accompanied with supernat- 
ural or miraculous features as to clearly dis- 

Now, it is a fact that the Bible does really possess 
these fundamental features that pure reason would 
demand. And as far as we know this is the only col- 
lection of books that can lay a well-grounded claim to 
such supernatural characteristics. These have passed, 
many times, through "Firey trials" of test, and like the 
Hebrew children in the furnace, ind Daniel in the 
lion's den, they always come out unharmed ! They are 
as indestructable as the imperishable fountain of truth 


and light, whence they came! As well try to storm 
Gibraltar with an array of pop-guns as to attempt a 
destructive criticism of this impregnable fortress of 
divine revelation. 

(2) The fore-going postulates naturally and 
logically lead to the idea and the consideration 
of the question of, "the reasonableness of provi- 
dential dealings of an arbitrary character." for 
as the heart is capable of believing, trusting and hoping, 
and God the Almighty Father is in position to see the 
condition of every soul and, put Himself in vital touch 
with every life, it is reasonable that there will be out- 
croppings of divine favor toward members of His 
family. Some of these expressions of a providential 
character have been far-reaching in their results, flow- 
ing out, over, and far beyond the original recipients of 
the blessings, as seen in the lives of Abraham, Moses, 
John the Baptist, Christ, The Apostles and others. 

It is reasonable that God would, as far as practical, 
employ human agency in working out His plans on the 
earth; and that He would encourage those whom He 
selects as His special agents, by giving them such un- 
mistakable assurances of His divine favor and super- 
intendence as to qualify them for the work to which 
He would call them. 

(3) The idea of providential dealings is also 
related to the idea of penalties and punishments 
for the violation of law. 

That man is subject to law is a self-evident fact, as 
proven by the idea of right and wrong in the human 
conscience. That is, he is subject to a moral law, that 


has its seat and applicability in the intelligence; for 
there can be no obligation in the absence of intelli- 
gence. And, as there can be no moral obligation apart 
from the conscience, there can be no reasonable inflic- 
tion of punishment in the absence of intelligence. 
Hence, the very idea of penalties is suggestive of 
moral capability and the idea of punishment. 

Moral law could neither be applied to nor reason- 
ably enforced upon subjects that are void of and in- 
capable of moral sense and obligation. Hence, the 
idea of sin is incc nceivable to an idiot or an infant, and 
cannot be applied to either; for they are not subjects 
of moral law, since they are incapable of conceiving of 
the same. 

Then idiots, imbeciles and infants are not subjects 
of retribution or punishment, as they are incapable of 
either obedience or disobedience ; and punishment car- 
ries with it the idea of the power to disobey; and not 
only the power but the exercise of the power in an 
act! Therefore, there can be no reasonable punish- 
ment meted out to any subjects that are mentally in- 
capable of conceiving the import of law and rendering 
obedience there-to. 

Now, it is perfectly reasonable that if God does re- 
veal Himself, and part of His revelation is in the 
form of law for the government of the people, that He 
will allot punishment to those who disobey Him; and 
it is further in perfect harmony with reason that the 
punishment inflicted by God for wilful disobedience to 
His mandates should be of an arbitrary as well as of a 
consequential character. It is arbitrary, for the char- 


acter of the punishment is in His power as judge. It 
may also take the complexion of consequential punish- 
ment; that is, the very consciousness of wrong-doing 
will remain as a part of the mental life; and as surely 
as effect follows cause there will be consequential pun- 
ishment. Remorse is a mental condition that follows 
a wrong-doing. In the committing of sin the con- 
science is defeated and outraged ; and in remorse con- 
science is using the lash. 

It is also reasonable that there will be degrees of 
punishment allotted according to the complexion of the 

The duration of the punishment would depend alto- 
gether upon the crime, penalty and the discretion of 
the Judge. It is difficult to see how punishment of a 
purely resultant or consequential character could ever 
come to an end. For it is hard to get away from a 
thing that is part of one's existence. Yet, arbitrary 
punishment can be temporal in duration, finding its 
limitation in the satisfaction of the penalty, or the 
decree of the Judge. Capital punishment has been 
practised by all civilized and uncivilized nations; yet, 
we frequently hear objections to this form of punish- 

But we have never known anyone who objects, upon 
being asked what he would do in the event, that his 
daughter or wife should be outraged and murdered by 
some fiend, but replied with a vim that such an one 
should be killed just as soon as possible. This is a 
sure cure for the position that capital punishment is 
unreasonable. The truth is, a man can forfeit his 


right to life and liberty by taking or abusing the same 
in other people. This is true fundamentally. And as 
it is a duty to oneself to have a surgeon amputate a 
limb in which gangrene is discovered, so it is a duty 
that society owes to itself to destroy or take from its 
midst any member that is wholly given to destruction 
and whose existence is a constant menace to the good 
of the community. And it is certainly just as reason- 
able that the Almighty Judge will excommunicate for- 
ever from the society of the just, those spirits that have 
been found to be incorrigible and irreconcilable while 
here on earth. In fact when we assume the conscious 
personality of the soul and its everlasting existence be- 
yond death ; any other theory than a final separation of 
the wicked from the righteous is unreasonable. So 
the Biblical idea of punishment is the only reasonable 

(4) The reasonableness of rezcards for well-doing is 
an essential compliment to the idea of the reasonable- 
ness of penalties and punishments for evil-doing. 

The rewards for well-doing may be placed under two 
general heads : 

(a) The rewards that are purely consequential or 
resultant. These come as the natural and legitimate 
results of doing right. The consciousness of having 
done right is one of the greatest and most desirable 
rewards for which the human mind can wish or hope. 
Akin to this is the consciousness of having sacrificed 
and suffered for the good of others. This conscious- 
ness is perfectly natural, and hence is consequential. 

Every noble thought, every kind word and deed will 


call for its rewards ; for nothing good will be forgot- 
ten; all these go into the web of character making. 
Some of the richest of gold deposits are of small par- 
tides of sand and dust, almost invisible to the naked 
eye. And some of the noblest lives are made up of a 
great many things that fail to attract public notice. 

(b) It is also perfectly reasonable that those, "who 
continue in well-doing, seeking for glory and immor- 
tality," will reap as they have sown. It is perfectly 
reasonable that many surprises will be sprung upon 
candidates for rewards in the here-after. Many good 
things are kept in secret from children until an ap- 
propriate occasion for a pleasant surprise; and "Eye 
hath not seen nor ear heard, neither hath it entered 
into the heart of man the things God hath prepared for 
those who love Him," is the "gloria in excelsis" of the 
Apostle Paul, the great Christian philosopher. This is 
in accord with our hopes ; and hope is a condition or 
rather a power of the soul that is telescopic ; it brings 
far-away things within our vision, and makes them 
realistic. In fact, like the astronomer's telescope, hope 
proves that there are things lying back of this visible 
world that have never been seen by the living, but are 
to be enjoyed on the mountain tops of the sor"\>